In Fashion there are a lot of professional career opportunities. Roles are increasingand specialized. This is a skill list of job professionlity in Fashion backstage (behind the spotlight of high fashion, models and supermodels):
Fashion designer and stylist
Fashion Trend Forecaster
Coordinator to Fashion Photography
Fashion Personal shopper
Fashion Magazine Stylist
TV Program Fashion Stylist
These are all figures of fashion world who work in international companies creating clothing, accessories, resale, in magazines and TV industry.
Drawing and manufacture of fashion clotes, are just two phases and perhaps more easy of whole project or of firm’s strategy, which involves interacting and makes a wide audience of professionals. Once the designer could also be a tailor, but now majoring in great fashion provides a wide list of professionals.
Project – Trend analysis – design – manufacturing – communication – sales channels – logistics – distribution – online shop – advertising campaigns.
Stages of implementation of the Project.
Briefing – Task Scheduling – Mood and story board (Inspiration & color palette, Collection Analysis, Communication goals, leitmotif, Mood concept, Location) – Project – Forecast balance sheet – Approval budget – orgnigramma for the project (photographers, models assistants, light designer, sound designer, scenographers, make-up artist, hair stylist) – detailed design – location – casting – fitting (preparation) – scenography – music – event & communication – make up and hair stylist.
There are two specific figures that strategically take care of fashion house and bring to success: fashion business manager*(1) and Fashion Stylist.
The first care of the company’s strategy in terms of strategic business management of the entire process, the second in terms of communication and design.
It is the professional of fashion, which has the task of dealing imaging and communication (advertising agencies, public relations, PR consultant in making videos, design and care of VIPs look) of a fashion brand or media.
Educated in specific disciplines such as Photography, Art, Fashion, Consumer Behavior, Psychology, Sociology, he has the duty to communicate and present a fashion product to consumers or readers, through images, maximizing demands and quality of represented brand.
It’s very old profession that in an early type data back tosacred rituals and/or profane organization, protocol*(2) for public or private occasions, up to contemporary times in which clothing, has become a real center of interest by itself.
Dresses worn in ceremonial Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Persians*(3), the Greek theater and in the Roman Empire rituals (mystery, Dionysian orgies, Vestalia, Lupercus, Consualia, Saturnalia), the games, in all important circumstances for a society, they have always had a designated person. Aeschylus should be the first to introduce costumes in the stage.
A first concept of “Fashion”*(4) was born in the Middle Ages, with the affirmation of Coortes and needs to belong to a certain aristocratic social status. Clothes should be comfortable, practical, durable and describe social status. The clothing should cover the entire body, protected from the elements and embellish the wearer’s body.
Roger II of Sicily (1095-1164) started production of silk thanks to help of Persian monks. This tradition then passed on to other Italian towns such as Lucca, Genoa, Venice, Florence, Bologna, which became very important textile centers in the period of Commons.
Here we can talk about interest in fashion in 1350 in Turkey, Hungary. In the Renaissance it begins to take shape fashion as a social distinction.
Also notable interest of some aristocratics as Catherine de ‘Medici (1519-1589), Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566), Maria Tudor, Queen of England from 1553 to 1558.
In baroque time outlines Melodrama that takes extreme care for the costumes.
In 1600, the Shah of Persia Abbas sent some diplomatic expeditions in Venice. In Europe it spreads Persian style. Then again the refined taste of the Sun King, Louis XIV of France (1638 -1715).
In 1742 Carlo di Borbone called to his court the Parisian tailor Troullieur and Giovanni Gallan from Turin to implant a silk factory in his kingdom.
Fashion have to consider the refined taste of Madame de Pompadour (Paris 1721 – Versailles 1764), the most celebrated favorite of King Louis XV interpreter at most of the French Rococo that shows off robe volante, very light and spacious dress, worn with high heels stiletto .
The academic literature recalls as first example of modern type of Fashion stylist, Maria Antonietta*(5) and fashion designer called to court in 1774, Rose (Marie Jeanne) Bertin (1747-1813) first fashion designer in history with her meson Au Grand Mogol (coming to the birth of Abbeville, textile area around Paris, brought fashion and haute couture in the face of popular culture, helping to raise from simple trade to Fashion Art). Probably it was this obsession of Mary Anonietta (never wore the same twice) to invoke public interest for personal clothing. Even the hairstyles of his Coiffeur Léonard Autie as the competitor of Rose, Mensieur Beaulard.
Isabella Colbran between 1811 and 1822 in Naples as the star of opera, first woman, theatre entrepreneur Barbaja companion, wore clothes very classy and refined manners in public and private.
The stylist does not create clothing as does designer, he is responsible for making it available for the public and potential customers. The modern professionalism was officially born in the US in the eighties, developed in the nineties. At the height of splendor, paper-based fashion magazines began to devise and propose the first publishing and editorial*(6): To further stimulate interest and sales.
Stylist for fashion magazines.
They may have an employment contract or freelance, but in principle a continuous type. The stylist is credited for catwalks to take notes on fashion trends. Back, when describing news and impressions to the director and fashion editor of magazine*(7) by mutual agreement put in place a strategic discussion of dresses in the publications. Often they agree with brands to set up the shooting with special garments, accessories, models, testimonials and location, for an effective presentation of fashion novelties.
Stylist for fashion houses.
In this context, the stylist has the task to provide guidance for creation of new collections. It provides therefore valuable advice, guidance for deciding on new production lines for design department (creative director and designer).
Stylist for catwalk.
The stylist is in charge of selecting combinations of collection worn by models for the fashion weeks.
Stylist for companies.
Some stylists are engaged in fashion companies for development of advertising campaigns and catalogs and lookbook.*(8)
Catalogs and lookbook are used to view the range of clothing company buyers (wholesale or retail dealer). Prepared in both paper and digital, they have evolved considerably. Since aseptic environments with neutral backgrounds, minimalist and monochrome environments are now in a very elaborate and sophisticated set that only a refined product taste and a solid collaboration of professionals can give.
Stylist for celebrities.
Many famous people, movie, tv, music, politics have recourse to the stylist to take care of their image and their look for public events, red carpet, private.
To be exhaustive in dealing must indicate teaching, and master courses for training and undertaken of this professional career. Very useful academic courses some colleges training students in subjects and themes much recent development practices such as software, social media for which skills are needed and ongoing updates.
The subjects and skills of Fashion stilyst, in various academic courses are as follows:
History of Fashion, Art and Costume History, Fashion Design, Photography (Digital Image Processing – History of Photography), Computer Graphics, Video Production (Film and Audiovisual Theory and Analysis). Elements of Journalism Communication, Journalism Fashion, Fashion Communication & Marketing, Editorial Laboratory, Proofreading, Foundations of fashion editors, Events & communication, Designing sets, make-up artist & hair styling, photography masters, historical evolution of fashion show. Theory of Perception and Psychology of Form, Fashion Marketing, Art Semiotics, Sociology of Culture, Gestal theory, Phenomenology of Contemporary Arts, Masters of Design, Methodology of Design, Enterprise organization.
Software: adobe illustrator, adobe in design, photoshop.
Training couses in Italy.
Courses for Fashion Stylist recognized by Ministry of Education (Miur) are those of the general type for all institutes or faculties. It is therefore based on Credits (CFU)*(9) for three-year post-diploma courses which often require a training period. First level – Undergraduate second level – Graduate courses also shorter than intensive time, from one month to one year.
Workshop theoretical and practical lessons. Almost all institutes, at least those on our lists (check always better for themselves anyway) have activated courses both in Italian Language or english Language. For foreign students, non-EU citizens need a Miur pre registration. It performs in the previous dates at intervals of inscriptions in the various institutions, to be enrolled and have the title of study translated and authenticated by your Embassy, issuing a declaration of value of the equivalent title in Italy. For pre registration requires a level B1 Italian certificate or an examination in the institut.
Istituto Europeo di Design – Milan
Accademia – Florence
Ied – Milan
Accademia di Belle Arti Pietro Vannucci – Perugia
Istituto Italian design – Perugia
Accademia Koefia – Rome
Milan School of Fashion – Institute Marangoni – Milan
Accademia of Costume and Fashion – Rome
NABA Nuova Accademia srl- Milan
Accademia of Luxury – Milan
Ged Fashion institute – Milan
Polimoda Ferragamo – Florence
POLI Milan design – fashion section of the Polytechnic with an industrial footprint for textile design experts and knitwear.
On line and telematic Universities:
International telematic University
UNINETTUNO – Advanced training Course Rome
PEGASO Fashion in collaboration with Panorama-Mondadori (I Level or 60-credit Master)
Fashion Stylist Institute – Ca (USA)
For training courses abroad can quote in English and French Language
London College of Fashion fashion school Central Saint Martins –
London Parsons The New School of Fashion in New York. Fashion Institute of Technology –
New York L’Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale –
Paris Bunka Fashion College –
Tokyo (for experimental fashion)
Opportunities for the fashion stylist.
Role carreer has become with time for limited budget of companies that economic crisis forces. In the past, fashion stylists were internal employees in the fashion companies or fashion magazines and respected rules and guidelines of owners. Today fashion stilists are freelance. Job opportunities are greater in countries where fashion is an emerging phenomenon such as China, Turkey, Brazil, India. On the contrary saturated in Milan, Paris and New York.
*(1) Fashion management
Business and management, enterprise management, product development from product design and marketing, marketing, distribution, sales network, online shop.
Business of fashion takes care of transforming a fashion vision into a production model.
They need creative and cultural skills combined with economic and managerial skills.
Retail manager responsible for the physical and digital sales sector; Buyer deals to purchase of finished or semi-finished products; Product manager transforms creativity into collection; Brand manager.
*(2) The protocol (ceremonial, label, and etiquette) is a social and legal institution that contemplates precise uses, habits and rules governing public and private life, relations in important events.
In general, uses in important events have always had a special treatment. An internationally valid, modern-style codification was inaugurated with Diplomatic Ceremony which was codified from the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Reworked at the Vienna Congress in 1815 was definitively codified in 1961 with Vien Diplomatic Relations Convention. It contains international protocollary procedures and various recognized diplomatic, ecclesiastical, maritime, state, military, and sporting forms.
*(3) Tunics in Middle Eastern countries were called kandys.
The ancient Persian footwear, the first ever stitched shoe consisting of low ankle boots or ankle boots with a triple stringed upper. By the time, shoes were worked out by adding a cuneiform cork base on the back that led to the invention of heels. It generally had blue and yellow colors. It is invented for military purposes for a stronger grip on the brackets of the front riders of trousers called Anaxyrides, always a Persian discover. Weaving in the cities of Hamedan and Susa.
*(4) Definition of Fashion.
Fashion term comes from Latin word modus which has a lot of meanings the most appropriate are way, norm, rule, mode.
Fashion has to be distinguished from other related synonyms such as clothing and costume.
Clothing concept comes from human need to cover with fabrics, skins or other materials for weathering. Fashion concept comes spread out when dresses begins to have skill social functions of distinction.
Today we have two types of Fashion: Haute couture or high fashion and Prêt-à-porter or packaging.
Sartoria is artisan workshop for production of exclusive personal clothing.
Prêt-à-porter, is a French term that means, ready to wear. It is used in fashion industry to indicate clothing made in standard sizes and put on sale ready to wear. It is distinguished by tailoring, high fashion and haute couture dresses that are tailor-made for individual customer. This process has been possible thanks to two phenomena that have followed at the same time the search for unit of measure for the human body and technological evolution of textile.
Human body size differences are contained and gradual in a range for which sizes can be created.
The first attempts to search for standardization of human body measurements were conceived in the military, for troops (American Secession War 1861-1865). The possibility was opened thanks to industrialization of textile (production of series clothing) for technological innovations in weaving and spinning (inventions such as John Kay’s flywheel of 1733, 1764 gilbert, hydraulic chassis and Mula’s 1778, the steam mechanical frame of 1787, and especially the Jacquard chassis of French inventor Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752-1834) of 1801, which was based on prototype (1465) made in Lyon under Louis XI by Catanzarese fabric, Jean The Calabrais, John the Calabrian, the mass-produced sewing machines thanks to Isaac Singer of 1850).
In the 1920s, mass production techniques improved and developed chain stores and postal sales through catalogs.
The first scientific study on proportions of female body was conducted in United States between 1939 and 1940 on 15,000 women by Ministry of Agriculture (USDA). Fifty different measurements were performed and results were published in the report entitled Women’s measurement for clothing and pattern construction (1941). The results highlighted the possibility of finding standardized sizes for man with whom mass-produced dresses could be produced. In 1951, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) resumed these studies and redrafted them by finding Commercial Standard (CS) 215-58 accepted in 1957 by industry, and spread in 1958.
Sizes prescriptions combined a bust shape (sizes 8 to 38), a height figure – tall (T), regular (R) or short (S), and a symbol for the waist circumference Hip girth): slender (-), average (without symbol), or full (+).
In 1971, the US Department of Commerce introduced the new PS 42-70 renamed Voluntary Product Standard. The novelty was inspired by the study carried out in 1962 by National Center for Health Statistics, for which adults were on average with height and weight greater than in 1940. The industry ignored this novelty and the standard was only modified in January 1983.
At this point, clothing companies have faced the spread of vanity sizing, that is to produce bigger garments that are better adapted to today’s bigger individuals and label them with smaller sizes. Companies make extra profits with the illusion of the smaller size because women especially want to feel lean and are ready to spend more for a smaller labeled head.
Conversion tables from Italian to international sizes (US and UK) are especially useful for online purchases.
European and Italian sizes.
The European standard since 2007 for clothing labeled clothing labels is EN 13402. It is based on body dimensions in centimeters.
Savile Row man dresses in London.
Savile Row via Central London Mayfair area. It is home to the most important and well-known world tailoring laboratories (Anderson & Sheppard, Cad & Dandy, Gieves & Hawkes, Davies & Sons, Henry Poole & Co. Norton & Sons). High fashion women Paris and Milan.
*(5) Moyenne style embracing both highest of the Rococo glamor that the simplest and most refined. Neoclassical
*(6) The editorial is main published article featuring headline review on the most important topical event. It is generally not signed. The editorial is a paging advertisement written in journalistic style.
Also called publishingational is generally signed by the most authoritative reporter.
Press release is a concise newsletter containing information on initiatives, conferences, events organized by bodies, companies or associations with cultural intent or propaganda. Without comment, it is one of the most effective forms of communication. Very often, press release assumes form of an editorial article.
Editorial Advertising, is a spot that is presented in the form of news or information service. Published on newspapers, TVs, multimedia and magazines for consideration, it is conveyed with specific graphic signs.
A fashion editor is a full article, commissioned by production houses of clothing, shoes and/or accessories, accompanied by text and photographs by editing and writing.
This is essentially a well-cared and paid advertisement that for greater effectiveness and prestige is presented to public in the form of a liberal and passionate description of magazine, increasing its verve.
Fashion editorials are textual, photo and photo journalistic services where the leading and specialized paper print reporter presents a current topic (fashion show, fashion week, trend) with different brands and models and designers.
*(7) Fashion Editor is a professional communication figure that designs fashion products or events through mass media and media channels (printed, tv and web). Must have capacity in developing editorial content by providing style, mood, and environment to better promote product or event.
He possesses distinct cultural competences in fashion and world sectors where gravity, taste and style sense, ability to relate with collaborators and clients, understand and anticipate trends, critical meaning, curiosity to put creative writing with effective technical language and synthesis according to fashion journalist approach.
Fashion Editor lends his expertise and expertise to most acclaimed journals, magazines, periodicals, specialized publishers of Fashion; at Marketing Department of fashion companies internally or as an affiliate of external relations.
*(8) The lookbook is a collection of images and paper or digital text with which a company tells the products to be offered to customers. It’s halfway between editorial and catalog.
*(9) ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) = CFU (University Credits). These are the credits needed for the student to achieve university degree. Lesson hours, workshops, home study. 1CFU corresponds to 25 hours of work. Work experience provides up to 12 CFUs.
1 year university = 60 CFU
Bachelor’s Degree = 180 CFU
Master’s degree = 120 CFU
The Higher Education Courses are studies and didactics to deepen specialist skills designed for students engaged in work activities.
The Diploma is a certified and state-certified act, with a five-year course, and a final status exam. It has full legal validity throughout the national territory and within European countries.
Professional qualification –Qualifica professionale– is an act through which the awarding authority attributes certification of professional competences of correspondent. Student holder will have full title to handle job duties described in it. It represents a qualifying title for the profession throughout national territory and in European countries (European level II).
Frequency attestation -Attestato di frequenza certificato- is the certificate issued by an accredited body. These certificates are fully valid. The holder will be fully entitled to handle the job duties described therein and is a professional title within the issuer area.
The certificate of attendance -attestato di frequenza- is a document with which an institution, institute, company or association attests the technical skills that have been given to a trainee. The skills are not certified or certified because the candidate has not been examined.
An attestation -attestato- has legal validity if the person who issued it is an accredited body. “Acknowledged” is therefore only an attestation issued by an accredited body.